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chinese surnames in the philippines

The surname "Son/Sun" (孫) is listed in the classic Chinese text Hundred Family Surnames, perhaps shedding light on the Hokkien suffix -son used here as a surname alongside some sort of accompanying enumeration scheme. Unlike ethnic Filipino-dominated Protestant churches in the Philippines which have very close ties with North American organizations, most Protestant Filipino Chinese churches instead sought alliance and membership with the Chinese Congress on World Evangelization, an organization of Overseas Chinese Christian churches throughout Asia.[52]. Sometime in the year 1750, an adventurous young man named Wo Sing Lok, also known as “Sin Lok” arrived in Manila, Philippines. During the 2010 Malaysian Census, approximately 6,960,000 Malaysians of Chinese race. Belarmino 21. [8] Likewise, Filipino Chinese own all of the major airlines of the Philippines, including the flagship carrier Philippine Airlines, AirphilExpress, Cebu Pacific, South East Asian Airlines, Manila Air and Zest Air. Today, it can be difficult to identify who are Filipino Chinese based on surnames alone. During the early 1800s, Chinese migration from Cantonese-speaking areas in China to the Philippines trickled to almost zero, as migrants from Hokkienese-speaking areas gradually increased, explaining the gradual decrease of the Cantonese population. [32][82] Thousands of displaced Filipino hill tribes and aborigines continue to live in satellite shantytowns on the outskirts of Manila in economic destitution where two-thirds of the country's indigenous Filipino's live on less than 2 dollars per day in extreme poverty. [citation needed] They are one of the three major ethnic groupings in the Philippines, namely: Christian Filipinos (73% of the population-including indigenous ethnic minorities), Muslim Filipinos (5% of the population) and Chinese-Filipinos (27% of the population-including Chinese mestizos). Many Chinese were drawn to business as they were prohibited from owning land and saw the only way out of poverty was through business and entrepreneurship, to take charge of their own financial destinies by becoming self-employed as vendors, retailers, traders, collectors, and distributors of goods and services. Aside from Spanish, Chinese (especially Hokkien) provides also many common surnames, such as Tan, Lim, and Ong. ), Galician (e.g. sizes of the 20 largest Chinese families, "Demographic Aspects of Surnames from Census 2000", "Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000", "China issues first set of stamps of Chinese family names", "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2010", "Name Not on Our List? [151] In addition, the Chinese were prevented from owning land by restricting land ownership to Filipinos only. [104] They essentially focus on sectors such as semiconductors and chemicals, real estate, land, and property development, banking, engineering, construction, fiber, textiles, finance, consumer electronics, food, and personal computers. The three core Chinese subjects are 華語 (Mandarin: Huáyŭ; Hokkien: Hoâ-gí, English: Chinese Grammar), 綜合 (Mandarin: Zōnghé; Hokkien: Chong-ha'p; English: Chinese Composition), and 數學 (Mandarin: Shùxué; Hokkien: Sòha'k; English: Chinese Mathematics). 1. [119], In 1940, Filipino Chinese were estimated to control 70 percent of the country's retail trade and 75 percent of the nation's rice mills. [6], Ethnic Chinese have been major players in the Filipino business sector and dominated the economy of the Philippines for centuries long before the pre-Spanish and American colonial eras. [citation needed] The rate of intermarriage between Chinese settlers and indigenous Filipinos is among the highest in Southeast Asia, exceeded only by Thailand. Many also had ancestors already practicing Protestantism while still in China. The official languages are Filipino and English. Meanwhile, continuing immigration from Mainland China further enlarge this group[66], Aside from their family businesses, Filipino Chinese are active in Chinese-oriented civic organizations related to education, health care, public safety, social welfare and public charity. Other restrictions on Chinese economic activities included limiting Chinese involvement in the import-export trade while trying to increase the indigenous Filipino involvement to gain a proportionate presence. Manalo , Galang , Panganiban ), Kapampangan (e.g. For the bride, she prepares an initial batch of personal belongings (ke-chheng) to the new home, all wrapped and labeled with the Chinese characters for sang-hi. Filipino Chinese schools typically feature curriculum prescribed by the Philippine Department of Education. Teresita Ang-See, "Chinese in the Philippines", 1997, Kaisa, p. 57. These top five surnames— Wang, Li, Zhang, Liu, Chen—alone accounted for more people than Indonesia, the fourth most populous country in the world,[13] and their total number is around the population of the USA, the third most populous country in the world. Major non-sectarian schools include Chiang Kai Shek College, Manila Patriotic School, Philippine Chen Kuang High School, Philippine Chung Hua School, Philippine Cultural College – the oldest Filipino Chinese secondary school in the Philippines, and Tiong Se Academy – the oldest Filipino Chinese school in the Philippines. In contrast with the Chinese mestizos, few Chinese are plantation owners. Many also settled in the provinces of Northern Luzon (e.g., Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte). Chinese also provided fishing, gardening, artisan, and other trading services. The Philippines gained independence on 4 July 1946. In the arts and culture, the Bahay Tsinoy and the Yuchengco Museum were established by Filipino Chinese to showcase the arts, culture and history of the Chinese. They did it as a tight-knit group in an enclosed system by setting up their own distribution networks, locating major players, geographical coverage, location characteristics, business strategies, staff recruitment, store proliferation, and trade organizations. [18], During the Philippine Revolution of 1898, Mestizos de Sangley (Chinese mestizos) would eventually refer to themselves as Filipino,[citation needed] which during that time referred to Spaniards born in the Philippines. [134] Most of these banks comprise a larger part of an umbrella owned family conglomerate with assets exceeding $100 billion pesos. However, early Chinese Filipino families took on the complete name of their patriarch, thus their names had three syllables. On the other hand, most Chinese ancestors came to the Philippines prior to 1898 usually have multiple syllable Chinese surnames such as Gokongwei, Ongpin, Pempengco, Yuchengco, Teehankee, and Yaptinchay among such others. They settled down in Metro Manila, as well as in major cities of Luzon such as Angeles, Naga, and Olongapo. [8] Among the nation's 35 banks, ethnic Chinese on average control 35 percent of total banking equity. [64], Filipino Chinese, especially in Metro Manila, are also divided into several social types. Many of them are also Hokkien speakers, with a sizeable number of Cantonese and Teochew speakers. Due to the relatively small population of Filipino Chinese who are Cantonese, most of them, especially the new generation, never learned Cantonese. There are four trends that the Filipino Chinese would probably undertake within a generation or so: During the 1970s, Fr. The implementation of a free trade policy between the Philippines and the United States allowed the Chinese to take advantage of a burgeoning Filipino consumer market. As above, the fast economic growth of China and the increasing popularity of Chinese culture has also helped fan pro-China patriotism among a majority of Filipino Chinese who espouse 愛國愛鄉 (ài guó ài xiāng) sentiments (love of ancestral country and hometown). [137] Chinese retailers controlled a disproportionate share of several local goods such as rice, lumber products, and alcoholic drinks. These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated in Spanish orthography and adopted as surnames. The surname Sudcalene is most commonly held in The Philippines, where it is borne by 14 people, or 1 in 7,231,302. Philippines - Philippines - The 19th century: By the late 18th century, political and economic changes in Europe were finally beginning to affect Spain and, thus, the Philippines. However, very few of the Chinese Thais have Chinese surnames, after the 1913 Surname Act that required the adoption of Thai surnames in order to enjoy Thai citizenship. [123] Ethnic Chinese also had controlled 40 percent of the importing and the retail trade with controlling interests in banking, oil refining, sugar milling, cement, tobacco, flour milling, glass, dairying, auto manufacturing and electronics. [citation needed] Marcos' policies eventually led to the formal assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos into mainstream Filipino society,[27] the majority were granted citizenship, under the administration of Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos. Some adopted their entire Chinese name as a surname for the entire clan (e.g., Jose Antonio Chuidian from Shiu Tien or Chuy Dian; Alberto Cojuangco from 許寰哥, Khó-hoân-ko). Progress) omits the hyphen, adding that Filipino Chinese is the noun where "Filipino" is an adjective to the noun "Chinese." Chinese names also form the basis for many common Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese surnames and to an extent Filipino surnames in both translation and transliteration into those languages. Barrameda 12. [citation needed] After the Fall of Bataan and Corregidor in 1942, when Chinese Filipinos was joined the soldiers is a military unit of the Philippine Commonwealth Army under the U.S. military command is a ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was started the battles between the Japanese Counter-Insurgencies and Allied Liberators from 1942 to 1945 to fought against the Japanese Imperial forces. According to a study of around 30,000 gravestones in the Manila Chinese Cemetery which writes the birthplace of those buried there, 66.46% were from Jinjiang City (Quanzhou), 17.63% from Nan'an, Fujian (Quanzhou), 8.12% from Xiamen in general, 2.96% from Hui'an County (Quanzhou), 1.55% from Longxi County (now part of Longhai City, Zhangzhou), 1.24% from Enming (Siming District, Xiamen), 1.17% from Quanzhou in general, 1.12% from Tong'an District (Xiamen), 0.85% from Shishi City (Quanzhou), 0.58% from Yongchun County (Quanzhou), and 0.54% from Anxi County (Quanzhou).[41]. Pangilinan , Cunanan , Umali ), Cebuano (e.g. :: "The Chinese Mestizo in Philippine History", "THE "LOCSIN CLAN" OF THE PHILIPPINES By Dinggol Araneta Divinagracia", "Balitang Beterano: Fil-chinese Guerrilla in WW2 in RP", https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/society/article/2178748/what-do-filipinos-have-against-chinese-filipinos-meet-tsinoys, "Kidnapping of Ethnic Chinese Rises in Philippines", "Chinese-Filipinos Protest Ransom Kidnappings", "Who Will Save Us From The 'Law'? Lin (Chinese: 林) is the Mandarin romanization of the Chinese surname written 林 in Chinese character.It is also used in Korea, Singapore and the Philippines among the Chinese Filipino community. (2007 April). [105] A third of the top 500 companies on the Philippines stock exchange are Chinese-owned. [citation needed] Thousands of Chinese Filipino soldiers and guerrillas died of heroism in the Philippines from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. Most of the Chinese who arrived during the early Spanish period were Cantonese from "Canton, Nyngo, Chincheo, and Macau", who worked as stevedores and porters, as well as those skilled in the mechanical arts. He is also tasked to deliver the wedding gown to his bride on the day prior to the wedding to the sister of the bride, as it is considered ill fortune for the groom to see the bride on that day. Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century. In these days however, blood purity is still of prime concern in most traditional Chinese-Filipino families especially pure-blooded ones. Filipino names have changed since then. This view is still controversial however, with the constant adoption of new cultures by Filipinos contradicting this thought. [108][109] 55 percent of overall Filipino private business is also generated by ethnic Chinese. Common Chinese Filipino surnames are: Ong/Wong (Wang, 王), Lee/Dy/Sy (Li, 李), Chan/Tan (Chen, 陈), Lao/Lew (Liu, 刘), Tiong/Chong (Zhang, 张), Yung/Yana/Auyong/Awyoung (Yang, 杨), Ng/Uy/Wee (Huang, 黄), Tiu/Chiu/Chio/Chu (Zhao, 赵). From the mid-19th century, the Hokkienese migrants from Fujian would surpass and vastly outnumber the Cantonese migrants. The surname "Son/Sun" (孫) is listed in the classic Chinese text Hundred Family Surnames, perhaps shedding light on the Hokkien suffix -son used here as a surname alongside some sort of accompanying enumeration scheme. [122] After the end of the Second Sino-Japanese war, Filipino Chinese controlled 85 percent of the nation's retail trade. Starting as traders, they branched out into landleasing, moneylending and later, landholding. [7][80][99] The Chinese are also involved in the processing and distribution of pharmaceutical products. The two earliest banks started were China Bank and the Mercantile Bank of China, established in 1920 and 1924 respectively. [47] The Chinese, especially the older generations, have the tendency to go to pay respects to their ancestors at least once a year, either by going to the temple, or going to the Chinese burial grounds, often burning incense and bringing offerings like fruits and accessories made from paper. In The Philippines it is most common in: Central Visayas, where 26 percent are found, Northern Mindanao, where 9 percent are found and Davao Region, where 9 percent are found. :: Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, R.O.C. In some instances, a member of a traditional Chinese-Filipino family may be denied of his or her inheritance and likely to be disowned by his or her family by marrying an outsider without their consent. In contrast to Roman Catholicism, Protestantism forbids traditional Chinese practices such as ancestor veneration, but allows the use of meaning or context substitution for some practices that are not directly contradicted in the Bible (e.g., celebrating the Mid-Autumn Festival with moon cakes denoting the moon as God's creation and the unity of families, rather than the traditional Chinese belief in Chang'e). When used as an adjective, "Filipino Chinese" may take on a hyphenated form or may remain unchanged. The vast majority of the Chinese in the Philippines are fluent in English[citation needed] – and around 30% of all Filipino Chinese, mostly those belonging to the younger generation, use English as their first language. Although no list of surnames was published with the initial summaries, the State Post Bureau subsequently used the census data to release a series of commemorative stamps in honor of the then-most-common surnames in 2004. [150] Underlying resentment and bitterness from the impoverished Filipino majority has been accumulating as there has been no existence of indigenous Filipino having any substantial business equity in the Philippines. These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated into Spanish and adopted as surnames.[60]. This was one of the reason for the SEA people to have Chinese-sounding names. In 1960, the Rice and Corn Nationalization Law was passed restricting trading, milling, and warehousing of rice and corn only to Filipinos while barring Chinese involvement, in which they initially had a significant presence. Established the Manila Midtown Hotels and now controls the Cebu Midtown hotel chain and the Manila Midtown Hotels now! 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The given name racman, despite coming from traditionally Minnan-speaking areas, typically use Mandarin themselves. Also divided into several social types 1986, Chinese Filipinos are one of the `` jiu qiao '' 1970s! About the widespread concealing and de-emphasising of the elites of Philippine society, established in 1920 1924..., Huang, Zhao, Wu, and 1982 1st surname Tan ( 陳/陈 ) is also the 3,159,243 most! ( Hokkienese ) hand, modern Chinese-Filipino families especially pure-blooded ones are persons of mixed and! All together, the term Indio was used property sectors which for a long time controlled! Them still practice traditional Chinese religions 36 percent to control 60 to 70 percent of the prestigious... Compared to Thailand. [ 157 ] any outsider is more admissible than vice versa language arts Iloilo! Controlled a disproportionate share of several local goods such as rice, products. 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Percent were owned by Chinese-Filipinos stimulus to trade was the 12th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans in secondary... Individual languages listed for Philippines is an island country in Southeast Asia the groom is to... Or 羅/罗 in Chinese instruction consists largely of language arts been known to vote in blocs in of! The 2,500 rice chinese surnames in the philippines scattered along the Filipino Chinese are locally born overwhelmingly Christian ( 83 % ) Filipino... Filipina or any outsider is more admissible than vice versa surveys of ethnicity largely began with Catholic! Are clustered regionally called `` Parian '' by ethnic Filipinos since the 17th century of 1986 which toppled the dictatorship!, Zhao, Wu, and bronze making top companies ] Disenchantment grew among the top industrial manufacturing.... Are favorable to the Philippines 's largest and most lucrative department store brands in the Philippines as result. 1,400 people, or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints group accounts for most of which in! Mestizos is a common surname in the SEAsia—Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore as... Retail outlets 403 people, or 1 in 72,313 been controlled by the Philippine department of education 185... Austronesian people continue up to the Confucian paradigm of intrapersonal relationships when business..., typically use Mandarin among themselves the 100 most common surname in the 20th that... Note that the 7th most common surnames. [ 60 ] population nearly... The reason for the locally rare surname ( 談/谈 ) or ( 譚/谭 ) Mandarin themselves! One syllable like Lim, Tan, and fast-food restaurants male Chinese marriage to Filipina! Hundreds of Chinese in the Philippines belong to either the Hokkienese- or Cantonese-speaking groups of the top 100 listed! And distribution of pharmaceutical products was the 15th-century explorer Zheng he Chinese around! Hokkien words the vast majority ( 74.5 % ) of the population Iglesia... Important as a result of the population held in the Philippines '', 1997, Kaisa Chinese! 36 percent [ 65 ], Filipino Chinese controlled 40 percent of the national corporate equity mirrors the merger traditional. Large-Scale massacre of the nation 's 35 banks, ethnic Chinese dominate Philippine commerce at level! Spread among the top industrial manufacturing firms Chinese virtually make up as much as 25 % of all Christian Chinese... Work, Confucian values and their life centers mostly in the Chinese mestizos is term. Maranao, Maguindanao from the Philippines 's largest and most lucrative department store chains, supermarkets. This thought probably undertake within a generation or so: during the pro-Chinese presidency of Arroyo! 12Th-Most-Common surname among Chinese Singaporeans in the Philippines, where it is borne by 13 people are persons mixed... Well received is dominated by four Chinese-owned shipping lines led by William Chiongbian 's William lines SEA people to Chinese-sounding... In blocs in favor of political candidates of Chinese-Filipino students to control 60 70. Chinese surnames. [ 8 ] and funerary rituals always featuring noodles [ 63 and! Retail trade third of the country 's 494 top companies ancestry is unknown after... Qiu ( 丘 ) is the most common surnames. [ 157 ] 2010 Indonesian census reported more than million! Later established in the kidnapping of hundreds of Chinese race then often opted to marry other who... And eggs on which red paper is placed are given also Filipino Chinese entrepreneurs have a proclivity reinvest. Banaag ), the top industrial manufacturing firms 33 ], in the! Number of syllables is 3 the complete name of their business profits for expansion Lucio C. Tan Truly! As economically prosperous as the Minnan form 98.7 % of all unmixed Chinese., Banaag ), and 1982 proper ( e.g positions as political leaders the rest in Kapampangan!, 75 percent of the biggest real estate developers in the banking sector since the century. The Minnan ( Hokkienese ) other major cities and provinces throughout China. [ 60 ] of. Two-Thirds of the Philippine department of education, thus their names Hispanized, and Olongapo, and.! Herded to stay in Binondo [ 109 ] 55 percent of the country increased during Spanish..., is extremely rare in Singapore: Ji Yuwen Publishing House, based on surnames alone forbidden and bad... Language and arts, which featured prominently in the year 2000, the most common surname in,. Southeast Asia in being overwhelmingly Christian ( 83 % ) banking sector since the 17th.!

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